Here's how science exposed the incredible “chemtrails” hoax!

The idea of "chemical traces" is one of the most colossal scams ever heard in history, which unfortunately never stops being used.The idea of ​​”chemical trails” is one of the most colossal hoaxes we've ever heard in history, and one that, unfortunately, never stops being used. Daniel Ingemi Daniel Ingemi Weathered Italy 13.03.2024 at 12:00 p.m 10 minutes

The one about “chemical traces” is one of the most colossal hoaxes we've ever heard in history, and one that, unfortunately, never stops being used. Leaving aside various campaigns of disinformation and opinions of individuals who can be easily manipulated, unaccustomed to scientific thinking, let's try to shed light on a very delicate topic, that of “condensation trails” (the term “chemical trails” does not exist), known in English as ” contrails” (condensation tracks).

In addition to water vapor, all aircraft emit other substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons such as methane, sulfates and particulate matter, which are products of normal combustion.

How are countertraces created?

The air emitted by aircraft turbines contains steam (in addition to the substances mentioned above), which is added to the steam already present in the atmosphere. Additionally, at these heights, about 10 km above sea level, extremely low air temperatures (they can drop below -60°C) favor further spread.

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Vapor advection, together with cooling (due to the environment and expansion), makes it more or less likely that the water vapor itself will condense rapidly, facilitating the development of a “wake”. condensation”.

In addition to water vapor, all aircraft emit other substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons such as methane, sulfates and particulate matter, which are products of normal combustion.In addition to water vapor, all aircraft emit other substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons such as methane, sulfates and particulate matter, which are products of normal combustion.

Once formed, a cloud can undergo various thermodynamic transformations, depending on the physical characteristics of the air mass in which it is located. This is why condensation trails can be more or less extensive or change shape very quickly in very strong winds at altitude.

In particular, the persistence of the “trail” depends on what is called supersaturation with respect to the ice. The first to study the phenomenon of “condensation tracks” was the scientist H. Appleman in 1953, who at the end of his studies created a graph that became famous among initiates. This graph can of course also be used to predict the possibility of creating traces and to perform retrospective checks.

The importance of the H. Appleman graph

To use it, you need to know the temperature and relative humidity present at the altitude of the aircraft. To get this information, simply look at an app, such as the very popular Flightradar24 app, which allows you to find out the weather conditions present on that particular route (temperature, humidity) in real time, and then apply that data to a chart using H Appleman.

This graph will allow us to understand if the environmental conditions suitable for the development of a “condensation trail” are present at this time.

On the graph, we notice that the two most important lines are the 0% line and the 100% line (relative humidity). If the atmosphere is colder than the temperature indicated by the 0% line, a “condensation trail” is formed even if the relative humidity of the atmosphere is zero. This is because the plane provides enough moisture to form a “condensation trail”, and no moisture in the atmosphere is needed to form clouds.

This graph will allow us to understand whether the environmental conditions are suitable for the development of a "condensation trail" are gathered at this time.  Image source: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Use-of-the-Appleman-chart-for-flight-altitude-planning_fig1_223163146This graph will allow us to understand if the environmental conditions suitable for the development of a “condensation trail” are present at this time. Image source: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Use-of-the-Appleman-chart-for-flight-altitude-planning_fig1_223163146

According to the diagram, “condensation trails” are always formed when the temperature value is to the left of the 0% line. If the atmosphere is warmer than the temperature indicated by the 100% line, a “condensation trail” cannot form even if the relative humidity of the atmosphere is 100%.

In such a range, the combined humidity of the aircraft exhaust and the atmosphere will never be sufficient to form clouds. Therefore, temperature profiles to the right of the 100% line will never result in a “condensation wake”.

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For temperatures between the lines from 0% to 100%, the possibility of creating a “condensation trail” depends on the atmospheric humidity, which is represented on the graph by relative humidity. When the temperature is between the 0% and 100% lines, a “condensation trail” may also form, but it will not be permanent.

About moisture and saturated air

When we talk about air saturation, it is obvious that we are talking about the condensation of steam into water droplets. When the relative humidity is 100%, the air is said to be saturated with water vapor. At that temperature, it can no longer contain water in a vapor state without condensation (provided there are condensation nuclei, which is the case at low altitudes).

Vapor advection, together with cooling (due to the environment and expansion), makes it more or less likely that the water vapor itself will condense rapidly, facilitating the development "condensation trail".Vapor advection, together with cooling (due to the environment and expansion), makes it more or less likely that the water vapor itself will condense rapidly, facilitating the development of a “wake”. condensation”.

The water vapor present exerts its own pressure called “vapor pressure”, which is added to the air pressure in the absence of steam. If the equilibrium is reached in the simultaneous presence of water and steam (that is, the number of molecules that pass into the liquid state is equal to the number of molecules that pass into the vapor state, but all the steam does not condense and all the water does not evaporate), then we are in air conditions ” saturated vapour”, where the steam creates what is called “saturated vapor pressure” and where the hygrometer will show 100% relative humidity.

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Relative humidity is so called precisely because it represents the amount of vapor in the air in relation to the amount of vapor that the air itself can hold without condensation.

The importance of air mass temperatures

But it depends on the temperature, because if the temperature increases (more thermal agitation that expels the water molecules), evaporation will prevail over condensation and the equilibrium is therefore reached for larger amounts of steam (more steam is needed to saturate the air). Therefore, for the same total content of water vapor in the air, the relative humidity increases by lowering the temperature and vice versa.

When we talk about air saturation, it is obvious that we are talking about the condensation of steam into water droplets.When we talk about air saturation, it is obvious that we are talking about the condensation of steam into water droplets.

Apart from water, this principle also applies to ice. As we know, water can change from vapor to solid and vice versa, following the respective processes of “brine” and “sublimation”.

But separating water molecules from ice is not the same as separating them in the liquid state. In essence, the relative humidity of air compared to ice is quantitatively different.

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If we continue to use relative humidity relative to water, saturation relative to ice occurs at values ​​less than 100 percent. This is important because “condensation trails” form at high altitudes, where temperatures are extremely low. That's exactly why they're made of ice.

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